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grade 4521 is a dual stabilized ferritic stainless steel containing 2% molybdenum. The grade 4521 is equivalent to the European code 1.4521 and American standard marking ASTM 444.
Thanks to the molybdenum alloying and rather high 18 % chromium content, the grade has excellent corrosion properties. Corrosion resistance is comparable to the austenitic grade 4401 / 4404 in various applications. As a result of molybdenum alloying, strength values for 1.4521 are higher compared to grade 1.4509.
Stabilization is made using both titanium and niobium. As a result of niobium alloying, a fully stabilized microstructure can be achieved with lower titanium levels, which improves the surface properties. Elongation to fracture values up to 30% (A80) can be achieved. More detailed technical information can be found from Outokumpu data sheets.
These properties make grade 1.4521 an ideal material for heat exchangers, boilers and water heaters. This grade may also be used in pipes for tap water and in other applications within drinking-water environments. 1.4521 grade is, for example, approved for use of drinking water applications by German (DVGW) and Swiss (SVGW) authorities. Another application having similar requirements is in solar water heaters.
Grade 1. 4521 is Molybdenum alloyed ferritc steel, and because of this, resistance to localized corrosion is close to grade 1.4404 / AISI 316 “acid-proof” austenitic. In chloride containing solutions pitting and crevice corrosion is possible, depending on various parameters like chloride concentration, temperature, pH value, redox potential, crevice geometry and others. Optimal material performance is usually achieved through efficient design, correct post-weld treatment and regular cleaning during use (if applicable).
The nickel-free ferritic grades have excellent resistances to chloride induced stress corrosion cracking.
1.4521 can be readily cold-formed by all standard processes. It is particularly suitable for deep drawing. The deep drawability of Outokumpu 4521 is comparable to that of deep drawing quality carbon steels.
4521 has a lower work hardening rate than standard austenitic grades. This characteristic makes the grade 4521 less suitable for applications involving stretch forming. For the same reason, 4521 is more easily cold formed and machined. The forces needed in cold-forming and machining are similar to those needed for low-alloyed carbon steels.
Normally, 4521 is not prone to the “ridging and roping” surface defect in deep drawing.
1.4521 produced by Outokumpu has low C and N contents. It is also stabilized with titanium and niobium which reduces or prevents the sensitation and formation of martensite. The stabilization gives this ferritic steel better weldability than many of the previously presented ferritic steels. The weldability is mainly limited by grain growth in the HAZ (heat affected zone), so the heat input must be kept to a minimum. Austenitic fillers are mostly used.
Food processing, brewery and wine making equipment, hot-water tanks, heat-exchanger tubing and automotive components
Type 444 is a low carbon, low nitrogen, ferritic stainless steel that provides pitting and crevice corrosion resistance superior to most ferritic stainless steels. Applications requiring superior corrosion resistance and resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking are ideal for this alloy.
Carbon: 0.025 max
Manganese: 1.00 max
Nickel: 01.00 max
Molybdenum: 1. 75-2.50
Titanium+ Columbium : 0.20 + 4x (Carbon+ Nitrogen) min-0.80 max
Phosphorus: 0.040 max
Sulfur: 0.030 max
Density: 0.28 lbs/in3 7.75 g/cm3
Electrical Resistivity: microhm-in (microhm-cm):
68 ° F (20 ° C): 22.50 (57)
Specific Heat: BTU/lbl° F (kJ/kg•K):
32 - 212 ° F (0 - 100 ° C): 0.102 (0.427)
Thermal Conductivity: BTU/hr/ft2/ft/° F (W/m•K)
At 212 °F (100 °C): 15.5 (26.8)
Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion: in/inl° F (µm/m•K):
32 - 212 ° F (0 - 100 °C): 6.1 x 10-s (11.0)
Modulus of Elasticity: ksi (MPa)
29 x 103 (200 x 103) in tension
Magnetic Permeability: Magnetic
Melting Range: 2700 - 2790 ° F (1482 - 1532 °C)
Coil - Strip, Foil, Ribbon Wire - Profile, Round, Flat, Square
Ultimate Tensile Strength: 60 KSI min (414 MPa min)
Yield Strength (0.2% offset): 40 KSI min (276 MPa min)
Elongation: 22% min
Hardness: Rb 90 max
Type 444 can be rolled to various tempers. Consult Ulbrich Technical Services if temper rolled product is required.
Refer to NACE (National Association of Corrosion Engineers) for recommendations.
# 1 - Hot rolled annealed and descaled. It is available in strip, foil and ribbon. It is used for applications where a smooth decorative finish is not required.
# 2D - Dull finish produced by cold rolling, annealing and descaling. Used for deep drawn parts and those parts that need to retain lubricants in the forming process. # 2B - Smooth finish produced by cold rolling, annealing and descaling. A light cold rolling pass is added after anneal with polished rolls giving it a brighter finish than 2D.
#BA- Bright annealed cold rolled and bright annealed
#CBA- Course bright annealed cold rolled matte finish and bright anneal
#2 - Cold Rolled
# 2BA- Smooth finish produced by cold rolling and bright annealing. A light pass using highly polished rolls produces a glossy finish. A 2BA finish may be used for lightly formed applications where a glossy finish is desired in the formed part. Polished - Various grit finish for specific polish finished requirements.
* Not all finishes are available for all alloys - Contact Ulbrich Sales for more information.
XC - Extra clean bright annealed or bright annealed and cold rolled Grease - Ultra-bright finish (for decorative applications) Soap - Soap is not removed from tempered wire to act as a lubricant.
* Contact Ulbrich Wire for custom wire finishes.
Type 444 provides excellent formability and can be readily deep drawn and spin formed. Stretch forming, however, is limited in application for this alloy.
Type 444 is non-heat treatable.
For best results refer to: SSINA's "Welding of Stainless Steels and Other Joining Methods".
Contact Person: Gao Ben